ISSN: 1812-125X

Current Issue
Volume 27, Issue 2

Volume 27, Issue 2, Autumn 2018, Page 1-168

Synthesis of five membered ring hetero cyclic compounds derived from methyl-6- methyl-2- oxo-4-substituted 1,2,3,4- tetrahydro pyrimidine-5-carboxylate

Shaima S. Ismmaeel

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1-14

In this paper the synthesis of methyl-6- methyl-2-oxo-4-substituted phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate (1-3) were synthesised from substituted benzaldehyde, urea and methyl acetoacetate, substituted pyrimidine (1-3) were treated with hydrazine hydrate in butanol to give acid hydrazide (4-6), which were converted to hydrazones (7-12) by their reaction with substituted benzaldehyde. Cyclizatian of hydrazones (7-12) with lead dioxide in glacial acetic acid gave substituted 1,3,4- oxadiazole (13-18). Hydrazide (4-6) were treated with ammonium
thiocyanate in ethanol and hydrochloric acid to give substituted
thiosemicarbazides(19-21). Reaction of thiosemicarbazide (19-21) with
4% sodium hydroxide or with concentrated sulfuric acid gave substituted
1,2,4- (4H) - triazole (22-24) and 1,3,4- thiadiazole (25-27)
The structure of the synthesized compounds, were confirmed by IR, UV
and physical methods.

Physical and Chemical Methods Used for Determination of Structures of Some Imines Derived from Different Carbonyl Compounds

A.S.P.Azzouz; D.B.T.Bakzo

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 15-27

The project is concerned with the preparation of fifteen imines derived from 2-acetyl pyridine ,3 or 4 –hydroxy benzaldehyde and m-anisaldehyde with aromatic primary amines by standard method .
These imines include namely ,hydroxylamine hydrochloride,o,m,p-amino phenols ,4-amino naphthol ,bromo or chloro aniline and p-anisidine .
The main aims of the study is the determination of structures of these imines by the available physical method ,namely ,the melting points ,boiling points , U.V and IR spectra . Some chemical tests for functional groups are also included .This seems important from chemistry point of view as in the elucidation of tautomerism reactions happen in some oximes and phenolic oximes . Finally ,the influence of inter molecular hydrogen bonding on association (polymerization) of imines was also discussed

Morphological study of flesh fly stages, Sarcophaga africa (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

Abbas M. Faraj; Abbas M. Faraj

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 28-38

This work includes a detailed morphological study of flesh fly stages, Sarcophaga africa (Wiedemann) which was wide spreaded in different localities of Kurdistan region-Iraq. The specimens were collected from March until July 2012. All stages have been described in detail. Taxonomic key have been formulated to isolate the larval instars. The important parts have been drawing. Some ecological information of the species, localities of collection and its date have been mentioned.

Heat Shock Stimulate Division of Hypocotyle Suspension Culture of Dianthus caryophyllus L.

Sahla Mohamed Zeadan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 39-47

The study succeeded in establishing a fine cell suspension derived from callus of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L. Hypocotyle explants in liquid MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mgL-1 2,4-D and 0.1 mgL-1 BA. The cells begin its first division within 24 h. These cell were continued their subsequent divisions to produce 142x103 cell/ml culture after five days of initiation. Results indicated that exposure of cell suspension to 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50oC short-term 5, 10 min. and long-term 15-20 min. stimulate the division of cells suspension in all treatments. Heat shock sustained the division of cell cultured in multiple drop array (MDA) technique and increase the formation of cellular colonies which produced a numerous of calli primordia. The total number of colonies was 959 developed when cells exposed to with the short-term 35oC/5 min heat shock. The produced calli was green in colour and friable in texture.

Better Adaptive Text Compression Scheme

Duha Amir Sultan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 48-57

A data compression scheme suggested by Ziv and Lempel, LZ77, is applied to text compression. A slightly modified version suggested by Storer and Szymanski ,LZSS, is found to achieve compression ratios as good as most existing schemes for a wide range of texts. In these two methods and all other dynamic methods, a text file is searched from left to right to find the longest match between the lookahead buffer (the previously encoded text) and the characters to be encoded. The method suggested in this work depends the searching in two directions, from left to right and from right to left, although this process takes more time, better compression results were obtained

Development a Hybrid Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Solving Unconstrained Minimization Problems

Sawsan S. Ismael; Basim A. Hassan

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 58-70

In this paper, a new hybrid nonlinear conjugate gradient method
are presented, which produce sufficient descent search direction at every
iteration. This methods showed globally convergent under some
assumptions. The numerical results show that all this new hybrid method
are efficient for the given test problems.